There are literally hundreds of different

citation styles. The main ones used at

Collin College are APA, Chicago/

Turabian, and MLA.

Please use the arrows at the bottom

of this side of the screen to move

forward or back through the tutorial.


When doing research you are "building

on the 
works of other scholars." If you

decide to use any information from these

scholars they deserve credit for the work

they have done. Referencing other sources

in your work also gives the person reading

your paper the confidence that you

have taken the time to become familiar 

with what other scholars in the field have

discovered about your topic.





 First, we'll talk briefly about the Chicago

Style. On the screen at the right, please

click the Full Text box and type "study

skills" and "college students" in the

search box. Click Enter.

How many results did you get? Choose the number closest to your results as databases add and delete articles daily.


What do you notice in the subject terms below the first few articles?


 Using quotation marks around two words

tells the database to only retrieve articles

having those terms together. This is

particularly helpful for proper names.

Click on the title of the article, "Class

Attendance peer similarity and

academic performance in

a large field study."



What is the name of the Journal in which the Article was Published?

Look at the toolbar on the right side of

the page (You may need to scroll over

just a bit using the bar at the bottom

of the page). Click on the Cite link and

find the Chicago Style.

What is strange about the Chicago example for the article?


The Chicago style is most notably used

by upper level History classes.

Many scholars prefer a "less intrusive"

simple superscript number after a

quote or paraphrase instead of the

(author/date citation) used by the

MLA and APA styles.




Example: Chicago and Turabian



The footnote (at the bottom of the page)

or endnote (at the end of the paper)

begins with a superscript number followed

by a period and then a space. This is seen as

less distracting to readers.

Most professors using the Chicago Style

also require an alphabetical list of all

references used at the end of the paper

called a Bibliography. The sources are

single spaced with a double space between




In Word, you can make a superscript

number by going to Insert/Symbol/

Subset:/Superscripts and Subscripts.

or, use the icons on the Word Toolbar.



For more information about the Chicago

Style, go to the OWL at Purdue.


Turabian and Chicago Styles are very

similar. It strictly depends on a professor's

choice for using a page named Reference

List or a Bibliography at the end of an


Turabian Style is used by the humanities,

social and natural sciences. If you're not sure

which style to use, read your Syllabus or

ask your Professor! At Collin, we have a Music

and a History professor who prefer the

Turabian Style. For more help with the

Turabian Style, go to

Please don't do it now or you will exit 

out of the tutorial!

We have the Chicago Manual of Style

in our list of Databases.

We recently acquired a subscription to

which can help you keep

track of all your sources and also help

with your Works Cited page in the




Sample citation in Turabian Style:

Sample footnote in Turabian Style:

Both Chicago and Turabian include the

option to use the author-date form instead

of the number-footnote in text citation.


(Author 2016, 4-6)

Using this format you would include a

Reference List at the end of your paper.


Don't worry! Your professor will give

specific instructions on the format

to use. 
Let's go on to the MLA Style...

Much easier
to understand!


Surprise! Surprise! A new edition of

the MLA Handbook and a new way to

cite sources in your English and other

classes! The good news is, that the

Handbook has gone from 292 pages

to 160 pages!

Simpler is better! These

changes were necessary to

accommodate the rapid increase in

the ways we can access information.

Go to for more


Before we get into the new citation 

format let's take a quick detour and talk

about WHY we must  cite all sources

we use from another source...

If we don't cite our sources we are

guilty of plagiarism!


Is it possible to plagiarize yourself?


Which of the following would be considered plagiarism?


If you paraphrase (change the words around) someone's ideas or arguments without giving credit it's okay because you're using your own words.



There are many ways to accidentally


How do you avoid this? Number one,

when you are doing research keep a

complete and thorough list of all the

sources you find! Make a note of what

are your words and thoughts vs those

you take from other sources. Write 

MINE beside your work! 


The Internet has changed the way we

gather information! Not too many years

ago students wandered the book stacks

in libraries searching for just the right

book or volume containing the information

for which they were searching...They then

found a Xerox machine to make copies!



We are all very lucky information has

become so much more available - but

because it is so available and there is

so much of it, we must be doubly careful

in keeping track of where it comes from

when we are doing research!


Another consideration about any information

we use is its reliability. There's a library

acronym for judging the quality

of information...

It's always a good idea to keep this acronym

in mind when doing research.

          Currency is not so important in

the humanities but if you are doing medical

research you certainly want the most up to date

information. This is also true about current

events. Always be aware of the publication

date when doing research. 

In what year was the article, "Class Attendance, Peer Similarity and Academic Performance in a Large Field Study published?

            Reliability has to do with the

source itself. If it's a website, does it have a

title and an author? If it lacks either of these,

it probably is not going to be the best source 

to use. That's why it is a good idea to use the

library databases when doing research.

Plus, they do your citations for you!


          Authority - Who is the author.

Is the author qualified 
to write in his/her field?

Does the author cite other people in the field?


          Purpose - Why was the article

written? Is it Joe Schmo's website trying to

persuade you to accept his point of view?


Your citation is like a road map from your

paper to the sources you used. It consists

of two parts. The first part is the complete list

of sources used and listed in the last page

(Works Cited page) of your paper. The 

second part is the citation within the text

of your paper - called in-text citation or

parenthetical citation.

According to the 8th edition MLA

Handbook students should look for

the subject topics below when gathering

information to cite their sources.

Pretty much the same as the CRAP test!  



         A major concept in the MLA

8th edition is that of "containers."

When the source being documented is part

of a larger work (contained within the work)…

the container is in Italics – and the source

within the container is in Quotation Marks.

The citation below has a number of

. Note that a real citation should be

spaced and the 2nd & 3rd lines

indented one half inch from the left margin!


“The Yellow Wallpaper.” Short Stories for    
Edited by Kathleen Wilson.
     vol. 1, Gale, 1997, pp. 277-293. Gale
     Virtual Reference Library.


The Yellow Wallpaper is a short story

contained in an eBook named Short Stories

for Students.

The book is published by a company named

GaleShort Stories for Students can also be

found online in the Gale Virtual Reference

Library, one of the college databases.

This is a good visual of "containers" from

the Bedford St. Martin's Website.

Some Examples:

Title of a book or anthology = italics

Short Story or Poem in the book = " "

Title of a musical album = italics

Song on the album = " "

Title of a TV series = italics

Title of an episode in the series = " "

Which of these should be in italics?

            The MLA 8th Edition

encourages writers to include the DOI (Digital

Object Identifier) at the end of a citation. A

DOI number looks like this and is usually found

at the end of a journal article:


If there is no DOI number you may include the

URL. Once again, check with your professor

about his/her preferences!

          The MLA 8th edition says to

indent long quotations (4 lines or more) in your

text 1/2 inch instead of 1 inch.

            Spell out editor, translator,

edited by, etc.

            If there are three or more

authors, only list the first author, followed by

et al (and all).

              There's no need to include

the medium of a source - No more Web,

Print, DVD...

          There is no need to include the

date you accessed the source!

             There is no need to include

the City of Publication! Just the Publisher's


The title of a journal should be...

The name of a library database should be in...

A short story in an anthology should be in...

Your Works Cited page should be

alphabetized by author or title (if there

is no author). You should ignore any articles

(A, An, The)
preceding the title - 

For example:

"The Yellow Wallpaper" would be

alphabetized in the Y's not the T's. If

the title begins with a number - For

example: 1984 - it would be alphabetized

under the N's for Nineteen.

So, now you know all there is to know

about citing your sources in the MLA



True or False? All English classes use the MLA Style Format.


Don't forget to print out the Certificate of

completion and turn it in to your professor

to receive lab credit. Happy Citing!



Please enter your name and email address to retrieve a copy of your completed quiz.

You can enter multiple email addresses separated by commas. If you are doing this for a class, you may need to enter your instructor's email address also.


What did you think of this tutorial?